Manusmriti in Telugu PDF: The Controversial and Influential Scripture of Hinduism
Manusmriti in Telugu pdf: An Introduction
H2: What is Manusmriti? What is Manusmriti?
H2: Who wrote Manusmriti and when? Who wrote Manusmriti and when?
H2: What are the main topics covered in Manusmriti? What are the main topics covered in Manusmriti?
H2: How is Manusmriti divided into chapters and verses? How is Manusmriti divided into chapters and verses?
H1: Manusmriti in Telugu pdf: A Summary Manusmriti in Telugu pdf: A Summary
H2: The first chapter: Creation and cosmology The first chapter: Creation and cosmology
H2: The second chapter: Sources of dharma and duties of Brahmins The second chapter: Sources of dharma and duties of Brahmins
H2: The third chapter: Marriage and family life The third chapter: Marriage and family life
H2: The fourth chapter: Stages of life and conduct of students The fourth chapter: Stages of life and conduct of students
H2: The fifth chapter: Food, purity and impurity The fifth chapter: Food, purity and impurity
H2: The sixth chapter: Conduct of hermits and renunciants The sixth chapter: Conduct of hermits and renunciants
H2: The seventh chapter: Duties of kings and administration of justice The seventh chapter: Duties of kings and administration of justice
H2: The eighth chapter: Civil and criminal law The eighth chapter: Civil and criminal law
H2: The ninth chapter: Property, inheritance and women's rights The ninth chapter: Property, inheritance and women's rights
H2: The tenth chapter: Mixed castes and occupations The tenth chapter: Mixed castes and occupations
H2: The eleventh chapter: Penances and expiations The eleventh chapter: Penances and expiations
H2: The twelfth chapter: Transmigration and liberation The twelfth chapter: Transmigration and liberation
H1: Manusmriti in Telugu pdf: A Critique Manusmriti in Telugu pdf: A Critique
H3: What are the strengths of Manusmriti? What are the strengths of Manusmriti?
H3: What are the weaknesses of Manusmriti? What are the weaknesses of Manusmriti?
H3: How is Manusmriti relevant today? How is Manusmriti relevant today?
H1: Manusmriti in Telugu pdf: A Guide Manusmriti in Telugu pdf: A Guide
H4: Where can you find Manusmriti in Telugu pdf online? Where can you find Manusmriti in Telugu pdf online?
Manusmriti in Telugu pdf: An Introduction
Manusmriti is one of the most ancient and influential Hindu scriptures that deals with various aspects of social and personal conduct. It is also known as Manava Dharma Shastra or the Laws of Manu. It is a collection of verses that prescribe the rules and regulations for different classes, stages and genders of human society. It covers topics such as creation, cosmology, dharma, karma, ethics, law, justice, marriage, family, food, purity, penance, transmigration and liberation.
Manusmriti In Telugu Pdf
What is Manusmriti?
Manusmriti is a Sanskrit word that means "the code or doctrine of Manu". Manu is the name of the first human being and the progenitor of mankind according to Hindu mythology. He is also considered as the first lawgiver and the author of Manusmriti. Manusmriti is also called Manava Dharma Shastra because it teaches the dharma or duty of manava or human beings. Dharma is the moral law that governs the actions and consequences of individuals and society. It is derived from the eternal order or principle that sustains the universe.
Who wrote Manusmriti and when?
According to Hindu tradition, Manusmriti was composed by Manu himself with the help of his ten sages or disciples. They received the knowledge of dharma from Brahma, the creator god, who revealed it to them in a thousand chapters. Manu then condensed it into twelve chapters for the benefit of humanity. However, modern scholars have different opinions about the authorship and date of Manusmriti. Some believe that it was written by a single author or a group of authors between 200 BCE and 200 CE. Others suggest that it was a compilation of various texts that were edited and interpolated over several centuries until 500 CE.
What are the main topics covered in Manusmriti?
Manusmriti covers a wide range of topics that relate to social and personal conduct. It deals with issues such as creation, cosmology, dharma, karma, ethics, law, justice, marriage, family, food, purity, penance, transmigration and liberation. It also defines the four varnas or classes (Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra) and their respective duties and privileges. It also prescribes the four ashramas or stages of life (student, householder, hermit and renunciant) and their respective rules and regulations. It also lays down the norms for different genders (male and female) and their roles and responsibilities.
How is Manusmriti divided into chapters and verses?
Manusmriti consists of twelve chapters (skandhas) that contain 2685 verses (shlokas). Each chapter has a specific theme and a number of sub-topics. The verses are written in a poetic form called anustubh meter that consists of four lines with eight syllables each. The verses are arranged in a logical order according to their subject matter. The chapters are as follows:
Chapter 1: Creation and cosmology
Chapter 2: Sources of dharma and duties of Brahmins
Chapter 3: Marriage and family life
Chapter 4: Stages of life and conduct of students
Chapter 5: Food, purity and impurity
Chapter 6: Conduct of hermits and renunciants
Chapter 7: Duties of kings and administration of justice
Chapter 8: Civil and criminal law
Chapter 9: Property, inheritance and women's rights
Chapter 10: Mixed castes and occupations
Chapter 11: Penances and expiations
Chapter 12: Transmigration and liberation
Manusmriti in Telugu pdf: A Summary
In this section, I will give you a brief summary of each chapter of Manusmriti.
The first chapter: Creation and cosmology
This chapter describes how Brahma created the universe from his own mind. He first created water from his breath (prana) then he created fire from his eyes (chakshus). He then created air from his ears (shrotra) then he created earth from his mouth (vak). He then created space from his navel (nabhi) then he created time from his heart (hridaya). He then created mind from his forehead (lalata) then he created ego from his head (shirsha). He then created sound from his skin (tvak) then he created touch from his hair (kesha). He then created form from his flesh (maamsa) then he created taste from his blood (rakta). He then created smell from his bone (asthi) then he created semen from his marrow (majja). He then created speech from his tongue (jihva) then he created breath from his nose (nasa). He then created sight from his eyes (netra) then he created hearing from his ears (karna). He then created mind from his heart (manas) then he created intellect from his forehead (buddhi). He then created ego from his head (ahamkara) then he created consciousness from his self (atman).
He then produced humans (manushya) from his mouth (brahmin), arms (kshatriya), thighs (vaishya) and feet (shudra). He then produced the four yugas or ages: krta, treta, dvapara and kali. He then produced the seven sages (saptarshi) and Manu, the first human being and lawgiver. He then taught Manu the dharma or duty of all living beings. He then entrusted Manu with the task of populating and ruling the earth. He then withdrew himself into his own self and became one with the supreme spirit (paramatman).
The second chapter: Sources of dharma and duties of Brahmins
This chapter explains the sources of dharma and the duties of Brahmins. The sources of dharma are four: the Vedas, the tradition (smriti), the conduct of good people (sadachara) and one's own conscience (atmatusti). The Vedas are the most authoritative source of dharma as they are the eternal words of Brahma. The tradition is the collection of laws and customs that have been handed down by sages and ancestors. The conduct of good people is the example of those who follow dharma in their actions and words. One's own conscience is the inner voice that guides one to do what is right and avoid what is wrong.
The duties of Brahmins are also four: studying the Vedas, teaching the Vedas, performing sacrifices and giving alms. Studying the Vedas is the primary duty of Brahmins as they are the custodians of knowledge and wisdom. Teaching the Vedas is the secondary duty of Brahmins as they are the instructors of dharma and culture. Performing sacrifices is the tertiary duty of Brahmins as they are the mediators between gods and humans. Giving alms is the quaternary duty of Brahmins as they are the benefactors of society.
The third chapter: Marriage and family life
This chapter describes the rules and regulations for marriage and family life. Marriage is a sacred union between a man and a woman that is meant for procreation, pleasure and fulfillment of dharma. Marriage can be of eight types: brahma, daiva, arsha, prajapatya, asura, gandharva, rakshasa and paisacha. Brahma marriage is when a man gives his daughter to a learned Brahmin after adorning her with jewels and clothes. Daiva marriage is when a man gives his daughter to a priest who performs a sacrifice as a fee. Arsha marriage is when a man gives his daughter to a sage after receiving a cow and a bull as a fee. Prajapatya marriage is when a man gives his daughter to a man of equal status with mutual consent. Asura marriage is when a man buys a woman from her relatives with money or gifts. Gandharva marriage is when a man and a woman elope out of love without any ceremony or consent. Rakshasa marriage is when a man forcibly abducts a woman after killing or injuring her relatives. Paisacha marriage is when a man seduces or rapes a woman who is asleep or intoxicated.
The best type of marriage for Brahmins is brahma, for Kshatriyas is daiva, for Vaishyas is arsha and for Shudras is prajapatya. The other types of marriage are inferior and sinful. A man can marry up to four wives if he can treat them equally and support them financially. A woman can marry only one husband who belongs to her own or higher varna. A man should not marry a woman who has any defect in her body, mind or character. A woman should not marry a man who has any defect in his lineage, learning or conduct.
A married couple should perform various rites and ceremonies to ensure their happiness and prosperity. They should also observe various rules and regulations regarding their sexual relations, menstruation, pregnancy, childbirth and child-rearing. They should also respect each other's rights and duties and avoid any conflict or discord.
The fourth chapter: Stages of life and conduct of students
This chapter explains the four stages of life (ashramas) and the conduct of students (brahmacharis). The four stages of life are: student (brahmacharya), householder (grihastha), hermit (vanaprastha) and renunciant (sannyasa). Each stage has its own duties and responsibilities that help one to attain dharma, artha, kama and moksha.
behavior and worship. He should also respect his elders, teachers and gods and avoid harming any living being.
The fifth chapter: Food, purity and impurity
This chapter deals with the rules and regulations regarding food, purity and impurity. Food is classified into three types: sattvic, rajasic and tamasic. Sattvic food is pure, wholesome and conducive to health, happiness and wisdom. Rajasic food is spicy, sour and stimulating and leads to passion, agitation and violence. Tamasic food is stale, rotten and unclean and causes ignorance, dullness and disease. A person should eat according to his varna, stage of life and season. He should also avoid eating forbidden foods such as meat, alcohol, garlic, onion and mushrooms.
Purity and impurity are determined by various factors such as birth, death, disease, contact, menstruation, ejaculation and defecation. A person becomes impure by any of these causes and has to undergo purification by bathing, washing, sprinkling or fasting. He should also observe various rules regarding his personal hygiene, clothing, bedding and utensils. He should also avoid contact with impure persons, places and things.
The sixth chapter: Conduct of hermits and renunciants
This chapter describes the rules and regulations for hermits (vanaprasthas) and renunciants (sannyasis). Hermits are those who retire from worldly life after fulfilling their duties as householders. They live in forests or secluded places and practice austerity, meditation and devotion. They renounce their property, family and social ties and depend on alms for their sustenance. They wear simple clothes made of bark or skin and keep their hair and beard uncut. They observe celibacy and non-violence and worship the fire and the sun.
Renunciants are those who renounce all worldly attachments and seek liberation from the cycle of birth and death. They undergo a formal ceremony of renunciation (sannyasa) where they discard their sacred thread, shave their head and beard and wear saffron robes. They wander from place to place without any fixed abode or possessions. They live on alms or fruits and roots and avoid any contact with women or wealth. They practice detachment, discrimination and dispassion and study the scriptures and philosophy. They meditate on the supreme self (brahman) and strive for self-realization.
The seventh chapter: Duties of kings and administration of justice
strength and valor. They are also trained in the art of warfare, politics and diplomacy. They should rule their kingdom with justice, righteousness and benevolence. They should also perform various sacrifices and rituals to please the gods and secure their blessings.
The administration of justice is based on the principle of danda or punishment. Danda is the power of the king to enforce law and order and to punish the wrongdoers. Danda is also the rod or staff that symbolizes the authority of the king. The king should appoint qualified judges (dharmadhikarin) who are well-versed in the scriptures and law books (dharmashastra). The judges should hear the cases of civil and criminal disputes and deliver verdicts based on evidence, witnesses and oaths. The judges should also impose appropriate penalties (danda) for various offences such as theft, violence, adultery, slander and treason. The penalties can range from fines, imprisonment, mutilation, banishment and death.
The eighth chapter: Civil and criminal law
This chapter details the civil and criminal law (vyavahara) that governs the transactions and interactions of people in society. Civil law deals with matters such as contracts, debts, loans, deposits, pledges, sales, purchases, gifts, inheritance and partition. Criminal law deals with matters such as assault, injury, murder, robbery, rape, abduction, arson and forgery. The chapter also specifies the rules and regulations for conducting a trial (vyavahara) in a court of law (dharmasabha). The trial involves four elements: the plaintiff (vadi), the defendant (prativadi), the judge (dharmadhikarin) and the witnesses (sakshi). The trial follows a procedure that consists of six steps: plaint (purvapaksha), reply (uttarapaksha), rejoinder (khandana), replication (pratikhandana), examination (pariksha) and judgment (nirnaya).
The ninth chapter: Property, inheritance and women's rights
This chapter deals with the rules and regulations regarding property, inheritance and women's rights. Property is classified into two types: movable (chala) and immovable (achala). Movable property includes animals, vehicles, clothes, jewels, weapons and money. Immovable property includes land, houses, gardens and fields. Property can be acquired by various means such as inheritance, purchase, gift, conquest or occupation. Property can also be lost by various means such as theft, destruction, abandonment or donation.
(pitamaha), great-grandfather (prapitamaha), mother (mata), grandmother (matamaha), great-grandmother (pramatamaha), wife (patni), daughter (duhita), daughter's son (duhitrija), son's daughter (putrija) and so on. The eldest son gets a double share of the inheritance and the rest is divided equally among the other sons. The daughters get a fourth share of what the sons get. The widow gets an eighth share of what the husband gets. The father gets a sixth share of what the son gets. The mother gets a twelfth share of what the son gets.
Women's rights are also discussed in this chapter. Women are considered as dependent (paratantra) and subordinate (anadika) to men in all matters. Women are also classified into four types: maiden (kanya), wife (patni), widow (vidhava) and prostitute (veshya). A maiden should be protected by her father, a wife by her husband, a widow by her sons and a prostitute by her patrons. A woman should obey and serve her husband as her god (patideva) and should not transgress his wishes or commands. A woman should also be faithful, loyal, chaste, modest, gentle, obedient and virtuous. A woman should also perform various duties and rituals for the welfare of her husband and family. A woman should also bear sons who can continue the lineage and perform the funeral rites for their ancestors.
The tenth chapter: Mixed castes and occupations
This chapter describes the various mixed castes (varnasankara) and occupations (karma) that arise from intermarriage and intermixture of the four varnas. Mixed castes are those who are born from unions between different varnas or classes. They are considered as inferior and impure and are assigned lowly and menial occupations. They are also subject to various restrictions and disabilities in terms of education, marriage, food, clothing and worship. The chapter lists 60 types of mixed castes that are derived from various combinations of Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras.
Occupations are the activities or professions that people engage in to earn their livelihood and fulfill their dharma. Occupations are also determined by one's varna or class that defines one's aptitude, skill and duty. The chapter lists 18 types of occupations that are suitable for different varnas. The occupations are as follows: teaching, studying, sacrificing, officiating, giving, receiving, ruling, fighting, trading, farming, lending, borrowing, serving, laboring, artistry, craftsmanship, hunting and fishing.
The eleventh chapter: Penances and expiations
of austerity, pilgrimage or confession. Unpardonable sins are those that can only be expiated by death or rebirth in a lower form of life. The chapter lists 36 types of sins that fall under these categories and the corresponding penances and expiations for them.
Penances and expiations are the means of cleansing one's mind from the impurities of sins and restoring one's dharma and merit. Penances and expiations can be of four types: mental (manasika), verbal (vachika), bodily (kayika) and external (bahya). Mental penances include repentance, remorse, meditation and devotion. Verbal penances include confession, praise, prayer and recitation. Bodily penances include fasting, abstinence, restraint and self-mortification. External penances include charity, service, sacrifice and pilgrimage.
The twelfth chapter: Transmigration and li